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THE PARISH OF CARLUKE By the Rev.J. Ramsay Thomson, B.D., Ph.d., Minister

THE PARISH OF CARLUKE

By the Rev.J. Ramsay Thomson, B.D., Ph.d., Minister

The Physical Background.   Carluke is an agricultural parish, stretching from the banks of the Clyde to the lower uplands of Lanarkshire, where the moor takes possession.  The village carrying the parish name has developed from a mere handful of houses two hundred years ago to a small town of over 7,000 inhabitants today.  It is not a market town and is dependent only to a very slight extent on the agricultural hinterland for its prosperity.  Thought no longer a burgh of barony, and though possession no local government body which is distinctively its own, Carluke has a definite, self-conscious community life.   The country people come in to share in the life of the town.  The surrounding villages in the parish have also developed a certain corporate life of their own.

The length of the parish, from west to east, is nearly seven miles, and its greatest breadth a little under five miles.   The area is 15,294 acres.   It is bounded on the west by Dalserf and on the south-west by Lesmahagow – from both of which parishes it is divided by the river Clyde;  on the north by Cambusnethan; and on the east and south-east by Carstairs and Lanark.

As the previous Account puts it: ‘ The different portions of the parish vary much from each other, both in temperature and appearance.  Along the immediate margin of the Clyde, there stretches a narrow but rich tract of warm sheltered holm land, expanding, at a few points, into luxuriant plains or haughs of considerable width;  beyond which the banks of the river rise rapidly to a height of from 400 to 500 feet above the level of the sea’.   The land continues to rise towards the village or town of Carluke and towards the upper parts of the parish.  The town is approximately 700 feet above sea level, but owing to its hilly nature there is considerable variation within the ‘built-up’ area.

The considerable range of altitude, from the high open moorland to the deep sheltered river valley, is accompanied with a corresponding wealth and variety of plant species.  There are to be found quite a few representatives of species which are uncommon or rate throughout the Clyde area.  The following list gives some of the rarer species which were not mentioned in the New Statistical Account, and indicates where they occur.

Herb Paris (Paris quadrifelia)                          Fiddler’s Gill

Twayblade Orchid (Listerera ovatata)  Old Lanark Rd.Braidwood

Bird’s Nest Orchid (Neottia nidus avis) Old Lanark Rd,Braidwood

Broad leaved Helliborine                                          Langshaw

(Epipactis latifolia)

Field Scarious (Scabiosa arvensia)                           Braehead

Lesser Wintergreen (Pyrola minor)                          Hillhead

A variety of Garlic(Allium Paradoxus)   Mashock

Adder’s Tongue Term (Ophioglossum  Langshaw,

Vulgatum)

Oak Fern (Phogopteria Dryopters)       Jock’s Gill

One rather uncommon plant, the Petty Whin (Genista anglica) used to have a location on the Moor, but this was destroyed when the Moor was transformed into a public park.   Rose Bay Willow Herb (Epilobium angustiforlum) has spread abundantly all over the parish in recent years and is now a prominent feature of open ground.  Time was when this introduction was uncommon enough to be valued as a garden plant,

Recent History. The advent of industry has profoundly affected even the rural areas.   There are no major industries in Carluke.  Castlehill Colliery is nearing the end of its life.  The preserve works, tile works, brick works, and bus depot provide a certain amount of local employment for men and women while smaller enterprises, such as motor garages, laundry, nurseries, and tradesmen, such as builders, joiners, plumbers, painters etc. shops and a couple of licensed hotels and  employ their quota of workers.  Good roads and modern transport facilities make a variety of occupations available to the lads and girls resident in the rural area.   Formerly almost their only outlet for employment was agriculture.  Viewed in retrospect at 1951, progress in the parish of Carluke can be divided into two periods:  the rise of industrial development, and the decline of industry which has coincided with the advance in social development.   Since the first World War the two most populous centres of Carluke and Law have assumed the characteristics of dormitory towns:  the rise of industrial development, and the decline of industry which has coincided with the advance in social development.   Since the first World War the two most populous centres of Carluke and Law have assumed the characteristics of dormitory towns.

At the time of the Old and New Statistical Accounts the parish could be regarded almost entirely as an agricultural entity, although the latter Account (written in 1839) shows evidence of industrial awakening, particularly in the eastern or Carluke sector.   The first Ordnance Survey map, prepared in 1857-59 does not show the present village of Law as a place-name, the community centre being then a row of workers’ dwellings called Brackenhill row.  Carluke had advanced by 1839 to a ‘large decent village’.  Indeed, the houses of now village is Scotland can exhibit a more comfortable and, at the same time, substantial appearance’.  Coal, Ironstone and limestone – the presence of which is referred to in the 1793 Account – were being recovered for industrial purposes;  two furnaces had been erected and eight coal pits were in production, and mining operations were ‘in a sense just begun’.   These enterprises attracted workers from outside, for whom dwelling-houses were needed, and merchants, craftsmen and quarrymen were introduced to meet the requirements of a growing community.

Weaving, and mining of limestone, ironstone and coal have ach in turn or in combination, taken an important place in the industrial life of the parish and brought prosperity to its people.  Each has disappeared or (as in the case of coal) is in decline;  but they have bee replaced by other industries, such as fruit-preserving, brick or tile making, transport, or by other minor concerns initiated by local enterprise, which have afforded, but in lessening degree, employment within  the parish.  Agriculture and horticulture do so to an increasing extent, and in spite of the introduction of other industries, have been basic and constant, and under present conditions will continue to be the most important industries.

The two world Wars took their toll of the manhood of Carluke.  In the first 180 men from Carluke lost their lives.  A memorial was erected and a book, entitled Carluke Relatives Memorial was published containing a photograph and short biography of each of the men.  Two townsmen, William Angus and Alexander Caldwell, were awarded the Victoria Cross for conspicuous gallantry.  No official record is available of the number of those who fell in the second World War.  Church records show fatal casualties belonging to the particular congregation only.  A native of the town Lieutenant  Donald Cameron, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his work in midget submarines.

A local weekly paper, The Carluke and Lanark Gazette, was first published in Carluke by Mr Andrew Beveridge in 1906.  The Gazette is the recognised medium for local news and advertising.  The present editor and proprietor is Mr William Bell.

The Community.  Although its boundaries have  not varied over the centuries the parish has been divided for electoral requirements when population increased or was dispersed to various centres.  The present divisions were made in 1930 and the boundary between the east and west electoral divisions follows a line drawn from the parish boundary at Bogside along the Stirling-Carlisle road to Bushelhead Road and thence along Bushelhead Road.  An adjustment of the boundaries of the electoral divisions may again become necessary, owing to the large building programme which has been approved, and under which 900 houses are to be erected in the neighbourhood of Carluke, whereby the balance of population will be altered.

Census figures for the parish during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are as follows:- (1801) 1756;   (1851) 6283;  (1881) 8552: (1891) 8058; (1901) 8966;  (1911) 9619;  (1921) 10178; (1931) 10507; and (1951) 11415.   Of the 1951 total, 5410 were males, as compared with 5125 males in 1931.  Carluke town, with 7126 inhabitants in 1951 (as against 4740 in 1901) and Law, with 1866, together account for almost 9000 out of the parish total.  In 1871 the village area now known as Law had a population of 260;  in 1901 the population was 1269.

The yearly survey made, as at 31 December, from 1878 onwards and kept in police headquarters at Hamilton, has a greater local interest than the Government Census, and yields the following information on distribution  of population and crimes and offences.

­­­­­­­­­­Year     CARLUKE                   BRAIDWOOD          LAW         Total

­­Offences                  Offences        Offences       Population            Pop.   Drink  Other     Pop  Drink Other  Pop  Drink Other

­­­­­­­­­­­­———————————————————————————–

1878    5,100   22    83              1,541   –    15        1501    –   16     8,142

1898   5,642   12    32     1,075  –      5          1829    2    6      8,546

1908    6,567   42    35     1,349  8    11          2000    3    5      9,916

1928    7,300   15    29     1,246  1    33          2178   –    18    10,273

1948    8,538    17  220         –     –     –          2076    1   40    10,614

————————————————————————–

*The figures for Braidwood in 1948 are included in Carluke.

 

The police census for 1939, upon which the Headquarters annual report is prepared, has been examined at Carluke police office and gives the following detailed information for Carluke and Braidwood.

—————————————————————————

CARLUKE       Males    Females   Total  BRAIDWOOD  M      F    Total

Castlehill        76         68            144     Braidwood     350      338   688

Dyke Row       86         88            174     Kilncadzow      31        18     49

Scoular Hall     46         42              88     Roadmeetings 37        33    70

Roadmeetings 20         21              41     Roadmeetings –

Hospital                      47

Staff                          85

Yieldshields   12           13             25      Rural            144      148   292

Rural            292       253           545

Carluke Village 2999  3206       6,205

Totals                                       7,251                                           1,235­

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Particulars for Law are not available from this source.  The division of Carluke and Braidwood is by Goremire Road and Bushelhead Road.

Since 1948 a considerable number of the population is Scoularhall and Braidwood have been transferred to the new housing scheme in Carluke and this transfer will probably continue.  Unless any private building takes place in Braidwood the population there is likely to be reduced further.

The number of offences recorded in the police reports indicates that the parish contains on the whole a law-abiding community, and serious crimes and crimes of violence are few.  The apparent marked increase in recent years is due to the growing number of statutory offences, particularly those due to the War Emergency Regulations, and should not be interpreted as an increase in lawlessness.  The police establishment is one sergeant and six constables, two constables more than in 1878.  Police duties have, as elsewhere, been considerably increased in recent years, but two police patrol cars, with radio communications with headquarters, have given a much more mobile force to maintain the public peace.

 

Roads and Transport.  The parish is a maze of highways and byways, now largely transformed to meet modern transport conditions.  The present mileage is over 50 miles (Trunk roads, 4.5/8 miles;  Class I, 3.7/8;  class 2, 8.3/8;  class 3, 9 miles;  the rest unclassified).  These roads were brought to their present state by the local road authority, but a new arterial road passing through the parish is to be constructed as part of a national requirement.

A through railway for passenger and goods transport, with a junction at Law, and stations there and at Carluke and Braidwood, was developed by the Caledonian Railway Company and opened in 1856.  The  North British Railway Company entered into competition and ran a line to Castlehill, but as the result of negotiations between these two Companies the latter railway was not taken further and was restricted to goods traffic.  It formed an important supply line for an aircraft salvage unit situated at Castlehill during the second World War and was discovered to be pin-pointed for bombing on maps found in enemy hands.  This railway is now disused.   During the same war the junction at Law was extended to form a large marshalling yard, and both it and Carluke handled a large goods but decreasing passenger traffic when rail transport was nationalised in 1948.  the railway staff presently employed are law 95; Carluke 18; and Braidwood 18.

Road transport was limited to horse-drawn vehicles until the beginning of the twentieth century, and was circumscribed in distance of travel. Motor transport for goods was followed in 1926 by a similar traffic for passenger travel. This year was marred by a general strike and, with an uncertain future for the mines, several enterprising miners and others in Carluke acquired buses and ran unscheduled services to the neighbouring towns and to Glasgow.   In this manner stated an industry which was to give employment to both men and women.  Competition forced the weaker bus-owners to give up their buses or caused them to treat with larger and better conducted concerns.   The firm of Stewart and McDonald and, later, A Duncan of Law were successful operators of buses.  The former absorbed other small owners and became one  of the businesses merged into the Scottish Motor Traction Company, which covers all Scotland, and of which  Mr R.B. dick, a Carluke engineer, continued as a director until nationalisation of road transport took place.   Mr Duncan’s business operates outside this merger. The enterprise and foresight of Mr Dick resulted in Carluke becoming a bus centre with a considerable depot, holding 45 buses and giving employment to 250 men and women.  Information obtained for the purpose of this Account shows that about 1,000 persons travel daily to other centres by bus or rail.

 

Public Services. The construction of a joint scheme of drainage and sewage purification works for the villages of Carluke and Law was carried out by the County Council and completed in 1941.  the scheme comprised the construction of approximately 10 miles of main outfall sewers to convey the whole of the sewage arising in both villages to a site for sewage purification works at Mauldslie Estate.  The works are situated immediately to the south of the site of the now demolished Mauldslie Castle, and the purified effluent passes into the river Clyde. The process of purification consists of primary settlement tanks, filtration, secondary settlement, sludge digestion and sludge drying beds.  The digested sludge is dried on the beds, and thereafter removed by local farmers and fruit growers for application to the land.  Allowance has been made for a reasonable increase in population, and in the event of a very large increase the various units could be extended.  At the outbreak of war in 1939 the joint scheme sewers had been constructed, and the sewage purification works were well advanced.  Completion of the works thereafter proceeded in a spasmodic manner, and it was not until 1941 that the sewage could be treated.  The facilities for sewage outfall and purification at Law were a determining factor in the selection of the site there for a hospital.

Prior to the joint drainage scheme, the sewage from Carluke was treated at two separate points.   Most of the sewage from the village discharged into a septic tank, situated in a field to the north-west of station Road.  After preliminary settlement the sewage received further treatment by irrigation over some 45 acres in adjacent fields, acquired by the County Council for the purpose.  After irrigation, the sewage discharged at various points into Jock’s burn.  The rest of the sewage, mainly from the area to the north-west of Market Place, was treated in a small septic tank to the north of Burn road, and conveyed northwards to a field near Castlehill for irrigation.  After irrigation, the sewage made its way into a ditch which discharged into the Garrion Burn.  Owing to the various housing developments and the installation of water and water-closets into many older houses, both the above schemes were inadequate to obviate frequent complaints of smell and pollution of the water course, especially during dry weather.   In a number of houses in Carluke dry privies are still in use.  These are cleared regularly by the cleansing department, extra money  being paid to the workers involved.

Conditions t Law were similar.  Here there were also two sites with small septic tanks, but no further treatment by irrigation had been provided. The effluent discharged into the Garrion Burn.  One tank was at Wildman road, near the Law Preserve works, and the other to the south-west of the village, on Birks Farm.  As at Carluke, the treatment was quite inadequate to deal with the increased flow of sewage.

At one time water was drawn from wells in the town, the sites of which are still remembered.   The original Carluke public water supply was obtained from a bore near Damhead Farm and was filtered at Coldstream, but through lack of foresight on the part of Carluke Parish Council, the right to build a dam at Coldstream was allowed to be purchased  by Motherwell and Wishaw.  At a later date the supply was augmented by Wishaw water from Elvanfoot.   In 1927 for example £1,127 was paid to Motherwell and wishaw for water.  Now, most of the water comes from the Camps Reservoir and may be augmented from Daer in due course.

The first gas works were below Mill road, but new works were built at the present site at Whiteshaw in 1898. In 1926 the gas company met serious competition when electricity was introduced to the parish by the Clyde Valley Electrical Power Company, but both sources of light and heat were largely used.  Recently state authorities have taken over both the gas and electricity and operate through Boards.  The centralisation which will follow this will, in all likelihood, remove gas supply as a local enterprise employing a considerable numer of men.  The success of the gas undertaking may be judged by the price at whch it was taken over, vis. 65s. for each £1 share.

Within the parish there are two hospitals.  The older, at Roadmeetings, in an infectious diseases hospital and sanatorium.  It has 105 beds.  The newer and larger hospital is on the main road, almost opposite Law Road end.   It is known as Law Hospital   this was built as an emergency hospital, with 1,000 beds for air-raid casualties in the West of Scotland.  These fortunately were far fewer than expected, and the hospital developed into a military one, owing to the service forces of allied nationalities gradually accumulating in this country.  With the evacuation of these forces to the fighting fronts, civilians from the adjoining area were admitted, and by 1946, 99 per cent of the patients were civilian.  The hospital has since developed into a general civilian hospital.  The departments are as follows:- General Medical (125 beds, 3 senior physicians);  General Surgical (125 beds, 4 surgeons); Orthopaedic (120 beds, 3surgeons);  Tuberculosis (160 beds, 2 physicians);  Gynaecology (20 beds, 2 surgeons); Ear, Nose and Throat (beds variable, 1 surgeon).  An out-patient department covers all these branches, together with skin diseases, eye diseases and psychiatry.  In addition to the staff enumerated above, there are three anaesthetists, one radiologist, and a resident medical staff of 20.  the specialists also serve neighbouring hospitals when occasion arises.  In 1949 102,000 patients attended the hospital.  Of these 40,000 attended for physio-therapy and 40,000 for minor conditions in the out-patient department.  The area served is from Coatbridge to Leadhills.  There are about 180 nurses in the hospital, which is also a training school for nurses and one in which the Orthopaedic Certificate for nurses can be gained.  The ancillary staff members 300. The spiritual needs of the patients are recognised.  Hospital chaplains of the various denominations to which patients belong are officially appointed.  These chaplains visit the wards during the week and conduct Sunday services at the hospital.   The duties are undertaken by the ministers of Carluke parish on the basis of a monthly rota.  The Roman Catholics appoint their own chaplain.

Housing.  The industrial awakening in Carluke village and its vicinity led to a demand for houses, and the ground on which these were erected was held mainly leasehold.  The proprietors of Kirkton were the principal land-owners, and leases on this estate were granted originally for periods of 999 years, but, an entail having been executed  in 1799,  the leases thereafter could be granted only for a maximum duration of 99 years, as provided by the Montgomery Act (1770), passed to promote the building of villages.  This period of 99 years provided too short, as the conditions imposed by Statute or by the local authority required an improved standard of housing too costly for the tenant to undertake.  The owners of Kirkton Estate did convert many of the leases into fues about the beginning of this century, but a number of buildings in Carluke, which neither tenant nor landlord could improve or rebuild, became derelict and stand abandoned.

Employers of labour built rows of  houses on sites near to mines and furnaces to house their employees.

A report in 1910 by the Medical Officer of Health for Lanarkshire gives details of 13 rows, containing 213 houses, of which 107 were in Carluke and 106 in Law.  These houses were one and two-apartment houses, with a few three-apartment for the use of officials.  The two-apartment houses represented about 60 per cent of the whole and a proportion were of the back-to-back type, common to colliery districts.  The average annual rental excluding rates, was about £3 an apartment, compared with £16-£27 per annum charged for houses erected by present housing authorities.  A list of the rows (with local names in brackets where differing from the official name) follows :-

Carluke Dyke (Treacle);  Engine:  Furnace:  Gill:  Heather;  Honeybank;  Locknow;  Stables;  Weighhouse;  Castlehill Bridge;  Hyndshaw;  Mayfield.

Law:   Wilsons;  Thornton;  Whorleyburn;  Scourlarhall;  Woodlands Square;  Brackenhill.

Dyke Row in Carluke, now much improved, is typical of the stonebuilt type of row erected in the beginning of the nineteenth century, and the report referred to gives the general features of such houses, mainly two-roomed, as:- Slated or thatched roofs, no damp-proof course, plastered on solid walls, wood floors not ventilated, houses comfortable, good gardens, communal wash-house, privy middens with a varying number of seasts, no sinks, surface channels with or without connection to underground drainage system, gravitation water stand pipes or walls.  It was generally noted in this report that no overcrowding existed.

Houses built in the beginning of the twentieth century were mainly for the owner’s occupation, but, for economic reasons of general application throughout the country and reinforced within the parish by the short period which many leases had then to run, there was no inducement for builders to erect houses for letting.  Other factors restrained industrialists from erecting houses for employees, but the increase in population in Carluke village (from approximately 5,000 in 1898 to 7,300 in 1928) was part of the national situation which compelled legislation in 1925 for the housing of the working classes.

The following date applicable to Carluke show the housing situation since 1925;  Houses condemned 328(Owing to the housing situation a number of these are still occupied).  Houses surveyed for overcrowding in 1935 under the Housing Act 1925 and being under rental of £45:-

Carluke (including Braidwood): surveyed 2065; overcrowded 18 per cent.

Law: surveyed 562; overcrowded 28 per cent.   Houses constructed by the Local Authority since 1925:- Carluke (including Braidwood) 896.    Law 256.   This does not include 222 houses built by the Scottish Special Housing Association at Cairneymount, Carluke, or the huts at the former Royal Air Force Camp at Burnwood, Carluke, reconstructed for temporary civilian needs and numbering 59.

The dearth of houses is still acute and the county council have built 124 houses at Uppershieldhill Farm, and have under construction 56 houses on the glebe.  Land on Crawfordwalls farm has also been acquired by the county council fo r housing purposes, and in the housing drive since 1939 the total number of houses erected and  proposed to be erected exceeds 900.  Ten houses for rural workers have been erected in Braidwood, but it is not intended to erect more house there or in Law for general purposes, and the spill-over from these places will be  housed I the  Carluke scheme.

Agriculture. The very variable influences of the type of soil and its exposure play an important part, and more especially when these factors are coupled with the fact that the land rises in terraced steps from an altitude of about 100 feet above sea-level at the Clyde to slightly over 1,000 feet at Kilcadzow.  Such a wide variation as is to be found in the conditions of a deep sheltered valley and of a high exposes ridge has a very marked bearing on the variety of crops which are grown, and even on their times of maturing, and the influence of this factor of altitude has bee duly note in previous Accounts.  Since there is little that men can do to modify these topographical conditions, the general picture of agriculture is very similar to what has already been described.

Throughout the past century there has been much destruction of land once available for agriculture purposes.  This has come about chiefly as a result of surface disturbance from mineral workings and of associated bings of refuse, which cover many acres.   These refuse bings are found, covering what could have been useful ground for agriculture, in the following districts:  Orchard, Braehead, Law, Castlehill, Hindshaw, Mayfield, Langshaw, Roadmeetings, Belstane, Hillhead and Kilcadzow.  Where coal, lime, ironstone and clay were worked by opencast methods, the excavations made have also taken toll of good land.  Another cause of deterioration has been subsidence ad flooding brought about by underground workings, such as is apparent in the Howlands and Castlehill region.  In the pst 30-4- years much first-rate agricultural land has been used as building sites for  housing schemes.  In Carluke this is most apparent between Market road, Sandy Road and Burn Road, between the Moor and Carnwath road, and at Douglas Street, and Shieldhill.  At present house-building operations have started on the west side of the Carnwath road in the glebe lands and this building scheme is planned to extend over most of the available land to Jock’s Burn, Crawfordwalls and Wilton road, virtually creating a new town and in consequence depriving agriculture of a large area of ground.  The entire composite site is over 100 acres.

A few acres of the land despoiled by mineral workings are being reclaimed by the removal of bings by utilising the blaes to make bricks.  By the dumping of the town refuse, opencast and quarry holes have been filled up at Dyke row and near Hillhead.  After the filling in of a long opencast gully with town refuse on the west side of the road at Fairyhill a bulldozer was used, and the whole site was levelled and covered with soil, so resulting in the addition of a few more acres to a field on Whitehill farm. To the eastern side of the parish there is a large area of moor and wasteland, and much land formerly cultivated on the fringes of this moor has been allowed to return to the uncultivated state.  Evidence of this is to be seen in the Gair and Belstane regions of the Bashaw moor.  At present the farmer in Belstane farm is making an effort to reclaim some of this land on the south side of the Gair Road.    A portion of this moorland near the Gair is presently being used by the Army as a tank-driving raining range;  this might accelerate efforts to reclaim land.

The farms are mainly of small to moderate size, and their standard of cultivation is very good under all the prevailing conditions of soil and exposure.  Grazing fields predominate and from the arable land the most important crops are hay, cereals (chiefly oats), and general root crops, such as potatoes and turnips.  Within recent years three has been a rapid development in the mechanisation of farm operations.  Tractors have practically replaced the once-famed Clydesdale horses, and reaping and binding machinery has superseded scythe men and manual harvesters.  Manures and seeds are scattered and planted by machinery, potatoes dug up with potato-digging machines and milking is done by electrically operated milking machinery.  This was when all farmers used to churn their milk, and market butter and sour milk.   These producers were transported to the customers by horse-drawn farm vehicles, the sour milk being carried in large wooden barrels, provided with a tap, from which the milk was measured out.   Now the milk is taken from the farms by motor-lorry transport, either to creameries or to large centres of population, where it is sold and distributed for liquid consumption. One result of the internal combustion engine ousting the horse for general farm and road transport work has been the reduction in the amount of available natural manure, entailing a much greater use of artificial manures.  In some cases whre these hve not been applied too intelligently this has led to a deterioration, usually in the quality of the crop.  To date, the combine-harvester or artificial hay=drier is not yet in use in the district, none of the farms seemingly having a large enough area under crops to justify the capital outlay involved.

There are many fine dairy herds and, in keeping with the rest of Lanarkshire, all thes3 are of attested tuberculin-tested stock.  In 1926 there occurred in Carluke parish a very serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease.  The disease was first detected in cattle in a Whiteshaw field, on the west side of the main railway line, on 22 May, and the infection spread from this outbreak during the whole summer.  The area was not declared clear until September.  About 40 farms were affected over a wide adjoining area, and over 20 of these within the parish.  The outbreak was believed to have started from infected pigs imported from Holland and the disease had reached the Whiteshaw field through sewage from Carluke slaughterhouse.  Since then there have been periodic outbreaks and alarms.

Sheep farming is practised mostly at the higher altitudes and in the moorland fringe districts, the chief breed being the Blackface.  Elsewhere many farmers are interested only in wintering sheep on their lands.  At Thornholme, once the home of a famed stud of hackney horses, there is now a sheep farm possessing a pedigreed and prize strain of Border Leicester sheep.

Farmers with long experience claim that the harvests are now earlier than in bygone years.  This is attributed to the  introduction of earlier maturing varieties of oats and also to the use of artificial manures.  Practically all the hay crop is now consumed on the farms, which indicates an increase of grazing stock.  Before the coming of the mechanical age large quantities of hay ere sold from the farm and transported to towns and collieries to feed the horse and pony population which used to be the basis of all transport there.

There haven many changes in the tenants of the Carluke farms and few farms now exist where some have followed their fathers in tenancy.  About one-third of the farms have been bought by the present tenants, and this has resulted in many cases in the modernisation and improvement of the farm-houses and buildings.  The buying of farms has been partly encouraged through the breaking up of estates, such as those of Carmichael, Mauldslie, Milton Lockhart and Lee.

Carluke Agricultural Society, after a spell of enforced inactivity due to war conditions, is again very active.   Its annual cattle show, held in July, does much to foster enthusiasm and rivalry in the production of high-class animal stock.  There is also a very enthusiastic Young Farmers’ Club in Carluke, which organises lectures, discussions, judging competitions and Brains, Trusts, as well as promoting dances, sport and other social activities.

Fruit Growing.  About 1872 the brothers Robert and William Scott introduced the growing of strawberries to Carluke parish and this venture has had a very material bearing on the development of horticulture therein.  Strawberries proving a profitable enterprise, the acreage  under this crop rapidly increased and became, for a time, the prime activity of horticulture I the parish.  Side by side with this, there developed the local manufacture of jam on an ever expanding commercial scale.  Appropriately enough, this project was also initiated by the Scott brothers, trading in partnership as R. & W. Scott.

About 1920-22 a puzzling disease made its appearance amongst strawberry plants and spread rapidly so that not only were the plants dying out in patches, but whole fields became untenable as far as strawberries were concerned.   Where the plants did not wilt and wither away the yields dropped to about half their original quantity.  Instead of being profitable, strawberry culture became a very precarious  enterprise, often ending in a complete loss.   Investigations resulted in the discovery in 1930, that the trouble was due to a new species of soil fungus, later named Phytophthora Fragariae, not known to occur in any other host plant but the strawberry.  This fungus attacked the root system, bringing about its ultimate decay.  Affected roots were easily identified by the red appearance of the central vascular cylinder, which is white in the normal healthy plant.  Hence the disease became know as the ‘Re Core’ disease.

In 1930, Robert D. Reid, a native of the parish, was appointed to work on the strawberry problem, and by 1933 a programme of systematic plant breeding had been started at Auchincruive, in Ayrshire, under this supervision.  The aim was to breed new varieties of strawberries which would offer as high a resistance as possible to the Red Core root rot.  As time went on, the need for such varieties resulting from the Auchincruive breeding experiments began to be release and these, from their initial vigour, did much to check the continual drop in the acreage.  In 1944 five new varieties had been released – under the labels of Auchincruive 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 – which met with a fair degree of success. being  widely used in the parish to replace the older varieties which had failed in the struggle for existence.  These new varieties proved to be not completely immune

from Red Core disease, but at least were more resistant than the older varieties.  In 1947 another new variety was released under the name of Auchincruive Climax;  this, at present, is the main variety grown in the parish by those who are beginning to increase their plantations of the strawberry.

Auchincruive Climax has proved itself in the district to be a variety with a vigorous habit of growth, producing excellent quality fruit, highly approved by the jam manufacturer.  Unfortunately  Auchincruive Climax, like other new varieties, after showing promise for about four or five years under commercial growing conditions, is now showing a breakdown resistance to Red Core. This may be due to new strains of the fungus finding loopholes in the resistance armour of the plant or the resistance of the plant becoming weakened through bad environment and growing conditions.  Prospects seem to depend on the plant breeder producing a succession of new varieties, each with, it is hoped, a higher factor for disease resistance, so that growers’ stocks may be able to keep at least one step ahead of the powers of the disease to overcome them.

Although the strawberry finds a more amenable environment in the river valley and it is deemed more su9table to grow this crop within altitudes up to about 800 feet above sea-level, there are many plantations of strawberries to be found in the higher regions of the parish at Law, Braidwood, Roadmeeetings, and on the astern parts of Carluke.   The fruit, however, ripens about a fortnight earlier in the lower and more sheltered regions than at the higher altitudes.

When the ravages of disease started to make  strawberry growing unprofitable, growers naturally looked around for some alternative fruit crop, and raspberries were a common  choice. The chief varieties grown are Burnetholm Seedling (a locally raised variety), Lloyd George and Norfolk Giant.  A virus disease has recently been causing trouble with raspberry plants, and new hybrids raised at East Malling research station and elsewhere are being introduced in an effort to maintain the productivity and well-being of this bruit crop.  Other bush fruits which receive cultural attention are gooseberries, black currants and red currants, and newer varieties which show improved qualities are being introduced  by progressive growers to replace outworn stocks.  The chief varieties of gooseberry grown are the old Sulphur variety, White Lyon, Careless, Whinham’s Industry and Leveller.  The red currant most in favour is Victoria, whilst the black currants are Seabrock’s Black, Baldwin, Wellington XXX, Westwick Choice, and Westwick Triumph.

The orchards proper, with their tree fruits, apples, pears and plums, are to be found on the lower slopes at Waygateshaw, Orchard, Crossford, Mashock, Howgate, Braehead, Milton Lockhart and Brownlee, where they have long been a prominent feature of the landscape.  In blossom time many visitors are attracted, who view the seeming snowclad slopes from suitable vantage points.   The most outstanding crop from these orchards is the plum, especially the variety Victoria.  Other plus varieties are Damsons, Early rivers Blue, Cgar and Monarch, with Giant Prune and Marjories Seedling as new varieties being introduced for trial.   Within recent years there has been a fairly high mortality rate amongst plum trees, this being caused by what is know as Bacterial Canker or Die Back, and so far there is unfortunately no known remedy for this trouble.  Twigs and branches of the trees wither away and die back, and in severe cases the whole tee eventually dies.  This problem is one of the many which workers in the horticultural field of research must tackle and solve to prevent disaster overwhelming plum producing areas.

Apples and pears come next in order to  plums in the extent to which they are grown, and again these mainly occupy the steep slopes of the valley region.  The sloping nature of the ground causes a great many difficulties in the management  of these orchards, more especially since growers have become more dependent on mechanical contrivances to perform the work of cultivation and spraying, where once only manual labour was used.   To work most of the orchards using the normal machinery – apart from the highly dangerous aspect of becoming upset in the process –is quite impracticable.  This factor, in conjunction with the economic problems of manual labour, has resulted in many cases of  orchards not receiving the attention required to keep them in a state conducive to healthy and full production.  The old varieties of apples have in time been gradually replaced by new varieties, the chief varieties now in cultivation being Bramley Seedling and Lane’s Prince Albert.   There are also to be found a few of the following varieties:  Grenadier, Lord Derby, Laxton’s Fortune, Laxton’s Superb, Ellison’s Orange, and Elenheim.  One old variety, Cambusnethan Pippin, is still being grown and, through the enterprise of an English commercial fruit-tree nursery, this variety is now being brought back cultivated, grafted on modern stocks.   Young trees from this source have been planted recently in an orchard near Braehead.  Pears are not looked upon as a crop of much economic importance, since, be cause of climatic conditions, the best dessert varieties (as is also the case with apples) cannot be grown to perfection.  Pear trees are often planted to form wind-breaks, and in many seasons the crop is not completely harvested, since the revenue from it is insufficient to offset the high labour costs of picking, packing and transport.   The chief varieties of pears grown are Laird Lang (Pasco Corn), Fair Maggie, Hazel, and Pitmason Duchess.

The nature of the valley contours results in much uncertainty concerning the crop of fruit which will be realised from all outdoor plants, no matter what promise may be shown at blossom time.  Many of the glens and hollows form frost pockets in which one or two nights’ frost, especially in the month of May, can cause irreparable damage to the fruit yield for that season.   Cold dense air naturally flows down into those hollows from the higher ground and, because  of no available outlet, accumulates.   On a frosty night the temperature in these pockets drops many degrees below that on the higher ground, with correspondingly greater damage to the blossoms and setting fruitlets.   This recurring menace is one which is very difficult to counter economically, and every year, especially in late spring, it causes great anxiety amongst the fruit growers.

Beset with trouble in the outdoor field, many fruit growers transferred much of their activity and enterprise to the production of crops under the protection of glass-houses.  From a few modest establishments, there has grown a huge increase of the acreage under glass over the past 20years.  At the present time, in Carluke parish, the acreage under glass is 32.7 acres.  The chief places where large glass-house establishments are to be found are in the valley near Crossford, Orchard and Carfin House;  on the higher levels we find glass-houses most prominent at the West End near Whiteshaw, Jock’s Burn at Crawfordwalls, alongside the Old Wishaw Road near Whiteshaw, at Law, Roadmeetings, Braidwood and Kilncadzow; and alongside the main Lanark Road between Mayfield and Braidwood.   The chief crops are tomatoes, lettuce, sweet-peas, late chrysanthamums, gladioli, carnations, and bulbous early spring flowers.  Tomatoes are, at present, the basic crop, and the fruit is exported far and wide by road and rail to markets in Scotland and England during the height of the season.  The principal market for the district is Glasgow, but large consignments of fruit also go to Edinburgh Newcastle and Carlisle.

The economics of tomato-growing are of great concern to the grower; costs of building and maintenance of the houses, coal, equipment, transport and labour are ever increasing, and, to add to these troubles, the imports of foreign produce cause seasonal gluts in the market and often make the attainment of a fair price for the local produce very difficult.   Partly for these reasons, growers are forced to supplement their income with other catch crops and to keep their houses in production practically throughout the whole year.   Also grown under glass for commercial purposes are cucumbers, grapes, orchids, roses, and even cacti, and large quantities of general garden plants are raised and sold in late spring for  bedding out.   Casual labour, which is so essential in the fruit-growing industry, is becoming a serious problem which has been aggravated by the outlook of the Welfare State and the unwillingness of workers to accept causal employment.

Fruitgrowers’ Research Association.   The horticulturalists within the parish are skilled and progressive in their outlook, keeping abreast of all new developments and techniques in their trade.  In 1943 an association called the Scottish Fruitgrowers Research Association was formed in Carluke, where its headquarters still are.  It is the only association of its kind in Scotland and that it should have been founded in Carluke is ample evidence of the calibre of local growers.   This association was formed for the furtherance of research in fruit-growing and horticulture.   It concerns itself solely with problems of culture, all questions of prices, marketing, wages and similar subjects  being left to be dealt with by other associations.  This association, whose present membership is about 250, has steadily grown in strength and performs a very useful and  beneficial service.  From October till March inclusive each year it provides regular and frequent facilities for co-operative discussion of current cultural problems by holding public meetings in Carluke.  At these meetings lecturers and research  workers of high professional standing outline and discuss varied aspects of horticulture.   Lectures are supplemented by brains trusts and sound film of a special technical nature.  Field days, practical demonstrations and outings to inspect nurseries and research establishments are also arranged.   The very good attendances which patronise all these organised functions are again indicative of the keen interest of local growers.  The association publishes twice yearly its official journal, the Growers’ Digest, which is distributed free to all members.  It has too, donated considerable sums of money to research workers to enable them to purchase essential scientific apparatus.

One cause which the association has championed is the establishment of horticultural research stations in Scotland.  In May 1946, its secretary compiled a memorandum, entitled ‘the case for Horticultural Research in Scotland’, and this was submitted to the Secretary of State for Scotland.  It is hoped that there will ultimately be established, if not on a site within the parish, at lease nearby in the Clyde Valley, a research station which will concentrate on the typical problems besetting both the indoor and outdoor phases of horticulture.   With horticulture in the hands of such a body of progressive growers the long-term prospects of this basic industry of the parish appear very good.

Industries.  Weaving and other textile occupations have been referred to in previous Accounts as cottage industries, but the factory system has replaced the hand-loom, and, as the factories are situated in Lanark, many persons travel from Carluke to work there.  From about  1870 to the first decade of this century, fully 15 firms, employing at least 30 travellers and 100 indoor staff, were engaged in the tailoring and drapery

Trade, the travellers operating as far afield as Fife and East Lothian.  This trade survives in only a minor degree.  Within recent years what was formerly a common lodging-house has bee n converted into a hosiery factory and employs 16 women and girls.  Its output is largely devoted to the ‘dollar market’.  No doubt a bigger staff could be employed if the necessary accommodation could be obtained.

The working of limestone in the eastern or Carluke portion of the parish is mentioned in the Old Statistical Account.  It was originally worked for agricultural purposes, and burned in its associated lime-burning works, but later was transported to blast furnaces at Castlehill.  The Craigenhill lime is stated to have been famous all over Scotland, and was manufactured  in quantity from 1850 to 1890.  the works at Craigenhill closed on 10 July 1890, but limestone  beds are still present.  The closing of these works at Craigenhill was one of the serious blows which industry in Carluke has received from time to time.

Ironstone was mined in quantity in the neighbourhood of Carluke and Braidwood by the Coltness Iron Company and the Shotts Iron Company, for use at their furnaces at Newmains and Shotts.  The latter company also erected, about 1838, two, later increased to three, furnaces at Castlehill, Carluke, and these furnaces were, according to official returns, in blast in 1884 but unlit in l886.  The ironstone mining industry was waning about the same time. K In 1888 when the Coltness Iron Company considered reducing its  Capital, one of the reasons urged for this course was that pits in the Carluke district had been closed  because of the demand for haematite instead of ordinary iron ore.

An ironstone mine, Mayfield No.2, Carluke, which employed 100 men, was closed in May 1885 and the men transferred to Hallcraig.   The mine at Hallcraig was closed in November 1890, the hope being expressed that redundant workmen would be transferred to the Newmains works.  the Shotts Iron Company ceased to work Kinshaw mine on 6 November l890.  the local industry of winning and burning of ironstone within the parish was in decline, and the mining of ironstone ceased.

The manufacture of fireclay bricks commenced about l880, when the Coltness Iron Company opened a brickworks at Hallcraig, the bricks being made from blaes left from earlier mineral workings.  It is recorded by Mr Carvel, in his study of the Coltness Iron Company, that 8,000,000 bricks were supplied from Hallcraig for building the London Midland Scottish Railway through Glasgow.  The Hallcraig Brickworks was operated until 1947, when it was replaced by a modern brickworks at Mayfield.  An additional brickworks is under construction by the Glasgow Iron and Steel Company near Roadmeetings.  The manufacture of terra-cotta goods was also carried on within the parish, but has now ceased.  Two tile works are within the parish, employing 64 persons, and using a local type of clay suitable for pipes for field draining and for ventilating wall-blocks in the erection of modern houses.

Coal had been used in increasing quantities and improved transport facilities sent up the demand. The pits were at Castlehill, Carluke, and at law, and the following table shows the expansion and the decline of coalmining which have affected the prosperity of both places.

 

Persons employed

`                           Year                           Carluke                  Law

 

1886                          242                       510

1896                          234                       878

1906                          252                       690

1917                          508                       609

1923                          990                       694

1926                          941                       469

1936                          359                       236

1948                          466                       12

 

These figures are obtained from official mining reports, and show the complete closing of colliery concerns at law.  Castlehill is gradually becoming exhausted, and has been threatened with closure as an uneconomic mine by the National Coal Board on several occasions since nationalisation of the coal industry in 1946.  It would undoubtedly have been closed in 1950 had it not been for the acute coal shortage, and it may go out of production in the near future.  The number of men employed in April 1951 was 350.  (the number employed gradually dropped until, when the pit was finally closed in July 1954, 292 men were thrown out of work).  Coal measures within the parish are being wrought from shafts at Forth and some Carluke and Law miners are employed there.  Many of the young and mobile miners have already gone to the developing coal areas in other parts of the country.   Increasing development of coal in Douglas will, it is expected, absorb about 120 miners, who will travel daily to their work, and others who are mobile may

be placed in work elsewhere, but many, particularly in the older classes, will cease to be employed I this industry.

Producing industries include two preserve works (one of them at law), one fertiliser factory at Braidwood , one foundry, one engineering works, two tile works, and two brick works.   A Motor-car demolition and general stores disposal business, employing 60 hands, has been carried on successfully in recent years at Braidwood.  For a good many years the Third District Council have endeavoured to interest government departments in setting up a small industrial estate in Carluke, but the general economic state of the country has prevented this from materialising meantime.

Churches.   There are six Reformed churches and one Roman Catholic church in Carluke and one Church of Scotland charge at Law.

Following the Church Union of 1929, three of the churches are now Church of Scotland.  “St Andrew’s”  was the name adopted by the parish church.  The building (dating from 1799) is in good repair and has recently been renovated.  There is a commodious suite of halls, the largest accommodating350.  the membership on the communion roll is 853.  the manse was old, out-of-date and inconveniently situated.  A new manse has recently been purchased in Mount Stewart Street, near the church.  It is a modern house of seven apartments and most suitable for the purpose.  The glebe which surrounded the old manse has recently been acquired by the County Council, and 56 three- and four- apartment houses are being erected there.  Negotiations are in progress regarding the sale of the old manse.

St. John’s, in Hamilton Street, was originally Free Church and became United Free, and then in 1929 Church of Scotland.  The church (1861) is in good preservation and has suitable hall accommodation.  The membership is 734.  The manse is modern and in good order.  Kirkton, now church of Scotland, was originally relief Kirk, then became successively United Presbyterian and United Free.  Built in 1833, it is in good condition.  It recently suffered from the exactions of a 99 years lease and the congregation were obliged to ‘buy back’ their church and manse at a cost of £900.  the manse, which is beside the church, is in reasonably good condition.  There is a small hall.  The membership is 506.The Original Secession church is in Chapel Street.   The present building was erected in 1880.  Recently, both it and the manse adjoining were seriously damaged by underground workings.  The damage was made good by the Coal Board.  From 1900 to 1923 this church had as its minister Dr Alexander Smellie, a scholar, philosopher and author, whose writings, mainly devotional, carried his fame far beyond Carluke.  Communicants number 160.   The Evangelical Union Congregational Church (1853)  is well preserved.  This was originally  a ‘Morisonian’ church.  The manse is in John Street.  Communicate, 405.   the Baptist church, known as the Martin Memorial Church, was built in 1910.  communicants 75.

The Roman Catholic church, with parsonage and school adjoining, was erected in 1858.  It was dedicated to St Athanasius and serves a growing

Roman Catholic community.   Many newcomers to the district have    been

Roman Catholic.          The church,  or  chapel as it is called locally,     has accommodation for 300.

The fissiparous tendency which has for so long characterised Scottish religion has manisfested itself also in Carluke.  Plymouth Brethren and other similar little groups, meeting separately, expound their own particular viewpoint.  On the whole, however, the various religious bodies live in harmony, toleration, and considerable co-operation.  United evening services embrace the three Church of Scotland charges and the original Secession charge.   Every year a series of united services are held each night in Holy Week, culminating in a united communion service in which all six Reformed churches combine – surely a rate occurrence in Scotland!   On the Sunday evening before Christmas a united Christmas Carol Service of all the churches in Carluke is held in the Town Hall.  The hall is usually crowded, with ‘standing room only’ by the start of the service.

The support given to the National Bible Society of Scotland is perhaps unique, being more generous per capita than that of any similar town in Scotland.  The community as a whole is sympathetically disposed to religion and to the churches.  Church attendances on Sunday mornings are good.  Interest is vital and active;  religion means something to the people.   The influence of the churches is considerable.  It is exercised not in formal pronouncements, but in a deeper sense that affects the outlook and sentiment of all.  The Covenanting tradition is still a reality in the town, and its spiritual outlook and appeal by no means dead.  The old parish church does not forget that one of its kirk session was a Covenanting ‘martyr’ and that one of its ministers was imprisoned on the Bass for his religious convictions.

Education.  In 1839, the date of the New Statistical account, the parish school was a low thatched house at the Cross, where the National bank now stands.  A new school was opened in 1841 near the Wellgreen, together with a schoolmaster’s house.  Part of this school is still there.  At that time the schoolmaster was appointed by the Heritors and was required to undergo a religious test by the presbytery before appointment.

The subjects taught were simple – mainly the three Rs – but the teaching was often good and the penmanship of many scholars excellent.  It is recorded in the Kirk session minutes of 1849 that the session expended 6s.8p on a copy of Virgil and a Greek Grammar for a boy at school.

In 1862 a new Code of Regulations was introduced, which meant effectively that the schoolmaster was paid by results.  In consequence the schoolmaster who held office while this code was in operation was exceptionally severe on his pupils and memories of his cruelty still remain.  In Carluke there was quite a number of private and ‘side schools’ in the middle of last century.  These were of varying quality.  The teachers were often untrained and had usually to depend on the fees they collected.  From 1855-61 a school, run by George Ferguson, was held in premises in Hamilton Street, and from 1861-67 in a house on the west side of Market Road.  Another school was conducted by Henry Andrew in  Carnwath Road.  Both Mr Ferguson and Mr Andrew had taught previously in Yieldshields.  Miss Marion Smellie had a school at 66 Chapel Street, mainly for girls and small boys, while Miss Gault’s school, at Old Bridgend, flourished in the 1860s.  There were also ‘side schools’ established by certain industrial concerns for the education of children of their employees.  There was a school at Castlehill under the auspices of the Shotts Iron Company, and one at Mayfield under the Coltness Iron Company.  With the passing of the Education Act of 1872 the need for those schools gradually lessened, and, in due course, they completely disappeared.

Owing to the unsatisfactory state of the existing parish school in regard to accommodation, sanitary facilities etc. the school in Market road was opened in 1876.  Extensions to the school at Wellgreen were made in 1893 and in 1909, and a second story was added to the Market road school in 1895.  Cookery was first taught in Carluke in 1892.  In 1909 a cottage in Chapel Street was acquired for instruction in domestic science.  This was superseded in 1930 by a new annexe, which also includes a gymnasium and a medical and dental clinic.  An annexe for manual instruction was built in 1910 and is still in use.

In 1918, school boards were discontinued and replaced by an ‘ad hoc’ Education authority on a county  basis.  (Many school boards, especially those in larger towns, were very progressive, but those in small parishes were often very inefficient.  The Carluke School Board was well known for its tyrannical attitude towards the teachers).  In 1930 administration was transferred from the ‘ad hoc’ committee to the county council.

In Carluke today the Education Acts are fully operative.  Education is given up to the 3rd Year Higher Grade – approximate age 15.  Thereafter pupils, who so desire, may continue their education at Lanark, Wishaw, Hamilton or elsewhere up to Leaving Certificate and University entrance standard.  School meals are provided in Carluke.  Dental and medical examinations of the children are carried out.   The number of pupils at present on the roll of Carluke school is:- primary school, boys 416, girls 410;  secondary school, boys 138, girls 138;  total pupils 1,102.   Number of teachers:- male 14;  female 15;  total 35.  of these 35 are permanent and 3 are visiting teachers.   Statistics for the other schools are roman Catholic school:- pupils 120;  staff 4.   Braidwood school:- pupils 35, teachers 2.   Yieldshields school: pupils 30, teacher 1.  Kilncadzow school:-  pupils 22, teacher 1.

Cultural and sporting Activities.   Carluke Amateur Operatic Society, founded in 1922, has acquired a reputation far beyond the bounds of the town for the production of light opera and musical comedy, and within  more recent years Carluke Young Men’s Christian Association Players (with quite a large female cast!) have successfully produced an annual pantomime, which invariable is repeated at a number of hospitals.  Other organisations, such as the Young Farmers’ Club, produce plays.  Carluke Male Voice Choir’s services are much in demand.   A Musical Association at St Andrew’s church as produced the ‘Messiah’.  A branch of Toc H was founded in Carluke after the first World War.

There is a Junior Football Club (Carluke rovers), with its ground at Lock Park, Lanark Road, and a few minor clubs.  In August of each year a very important sports meting nd pipe band contest is held at Loch Park by Carluke Charities committee, and attracts some of the finest athletes and bands in the country.  There are a good 18-hole golf course, two bowling greens (one private and one Miners’ Welfare), and a tennis court (Miners’ Welfare).  Other activities include a cycling club, a canine society, and a horticultural society.  Curling out of doors at lock Park was once very keenly practised.    Now, apart from indoor curling on ice rinks outwith the parish, there is very little of this activity.  Quoiting was a sport for which miners had once a very high enthusiasm;  today this sport is  practically unknown.

The local troop of Boy Scout was begun in 1908 by Mr Archibald Lightbody.  Mr Lightbody is still (1952) Scoutmaster of this flourishing troop and has probably the distinction of being the Scoutmaster with longest continuous service.  An efficient pipe band has for many years been run by the Scouts.

The district council has provided a large 16-acre playing field at the Moor, and two open spaces I the centre of the town;  the Market – formerly a rather unsightly place and now attractively laid out;   and the Wee Moss – a children’s playground.

Villages

Apart from Law, which is being dealt with separately  later in this account, there are three small villages, viz:- Braidwood, Kilcadzow and Yieldshields.

Braidwood, the largest, at one time had a chemical works, sawmill, brickworks and tileworks.    The only industries now, apart from agriculture and horticulture, are a manure works and a large car demolition works – stated to be the largest in the country.  There is also a chip sore – for storing the baskets or  ‘chips’  used in the fruit trade.  The district council has three open spaces in Braidwood – a small piece of ground near the station, recently given by Lord Clydesmuir and being developed at present;  Braidwood Loch – possibly the most attractive open space belonging to the council, but unfortunately marred by an electricity transformer station;  and the children’s playground.

Reference is made elsewhere to the ironstone and limestone workings in Kilcadzow, which have not been operated for many years.  At one time it looked as if this village might disappear;  as many of the houses became ruinous and were demolished, the population was rehoused in Carluke.  This tendency has been halted, chiefly by the improvement in agricultural conditions.  Houses for agricultural workers have been erected and several of the old houses reconditioned.  There is an active branch of the Women’s rural Institute, and a fine example of community interest is shown by the erection by voluntary labour of a hut belonging to the district council, which is to serve as a village hall.  On the ordnance Survey map of 1857-1859 the name is spelt Kilncadzow and so it was officially rendered until comparatively recent years.  The local Pronunciation is Kilcagie (3 syllables).  In Armstrong’s ‘Scotch Atlas’ published in London in 1794 it is spelt Kilcago.   This would indicate that the local pronunciation maintains an older and more accurate tradition.   The meaning and significance of the word  can only surmised.  Yieldshields

Was, and continues to be, a purely agricultural community.

The Village and Parish of Law.  Law, in the north-west corner of the civil parish of Carluke, was erected into quoad sacra parish in 1885.  the following particulars relate to that area.

As far as Mauldslie Estate is concerned, there were no important changes in landholdings prior to 1947.  Since 1947 the Carmichael and Mauldslie Estates have sold four farms, three of them to sitting tenants – East Law;  Stravenhouse; Waterlands – and Gillhead to the owners of the Preserve Works.  the steading of Law Muir is now derelict and there are only traces remaining of the South Law Steading.  Areas for housing have recently been sold to private individuals and to the county council, the rates varying from £75 to £240 per acre.  Local authority purchases are now based on district valuers’ prices.  The feuing rate has varied from £12 to £20 per acre and a number of feus were taken for market-gardening purposes and the erection of tomato-houses at £12 per acre.  About 80 or 90 years ago quite a number of building sites were let on long lease at a rate very much lower than that in use for feuing, namely £8 to  £12 per acre.  This is the type of long lease, usually 99 years, in which the buildings revert to the proprietor at end of lease, and it has caused a lot of agitation recently, mostly emanating from the Stonehouse district.

Mauldslie Castle, a prominent landmark in the vicinity, was demolished in 1935.  this stately and imposing building was erected in 1793.  the last wing was completed in 1890.  In 1914, just previous to the outbreak of war, King George V paid an official visit to the Castle.  At one time what is now known as Lawhill was called Bourtree;    the bowling green was called Shepherd’s Butts;  while Brownlee was called Cadgersgait.

A certain amount of overcrowding exists, but this has been somewhat relieved of late by removal of families to Carluke.  As more houses  become available in Carluke, this problem should gradually disappear.  There are, however, some rows of houses in Brownlee Road which have served their purpose and ought to go.  The lack of space and conveniences make them unhygienic.

The tile works started on Whitsunday 1918. The whole mineral position at Law seems to have suffered from a lack of c are in extraction of the coal.  A number of pockets have been left and various small firms have attempted to work these after the main workings were abandoned, but none of these ventures has been successful and some have involved a considerable loss to the proprietors through damage caused to the surface.   During the second half of last century the village of Law  was a hive of activity, for it contained no fewer than 10 collieries, with a daily output of 2,000 tons, which supplied the Lanarkshire steel works, etc.  the following is a list of those collieries with dates of opening and (in most cases) closing down:-  No.1 Blueknowes (1885);  Burns Mine (1860);  No.1, 2,3, Shawfield (1860-1934); No.5 Waddels (1870-1900);  No. 3,4, Stravenhouse (1870-1914);  No.2 Jelly Pit (1893-1910);  No.8 Waterlands (1910-1922);  No.6 Duck (1912-1933);  Mauldslie Mine (1929-1939).  There are no pits being worked now, so that miners who live in the village have to travel to Kingshill (Shotts), Castlehill (Carluke) or Hillhead pits.

Law has become somewhat conspicuous by the railway junction.  The centenary of the opening of the main railway line between Glasgow and London by the linking up of the line near Garriongill took place 4 years ago.  All main line trains from Glasgow and Perth to England pass through Law junction station.  The night postal trains from Glasgow and Aberdeen combine at law junction each night ad letters from the main provincial towns in England are sorted out on the train en  route to London by the Post Office who travel on the train…  The number employed at Law Junction station and marshalling yards is 95.

During the early part of the late war freight traffic was meeting with serious delay at Carlisle and it was necessary to open a marshalling yard to section out the freight traffic passing from the industrial area of Scotland to England.  Because of its position, Law junction was chosen for this purpose in 1940.  In addition to the freight traffic, five fish trains from Aberdeen arrive in up yard each night.

Fruit preserving was begun in Law more than 60 years ago;  Mauldslie preserve works were in operation in 1884, and since then have greatly developed, both in man-power and in output.  When opened the works had one clerkess;  today there are 16.  In the factory 120 men and women are employed.  (Closed in 1956)

A new industry which has grown to considerable proportions within recent years is that of tomato-growing.  There are 20 tomato growers, and 195,200 square feet of soil under glas used for this purpose.   Most of the produce goes to the markets in Glasgow and Edinburgh.  The quality of the fruit is reckoned to be among the finest in the country.

The closing down of the pits in Law meant that those employed had either to travel out of the village or seek new employment.  Some have ben absorbed into the steel works, preserve works, tomato-growing, and into the staff of Law Hospital (already described), which employs a considerable number of l\w residents.  The number of those to travel out of Law on business is 230 (50 by train and 180 by bus).  Motor transport operates between law, Wishaw and Carluke and is provided by A. Duncan of Law.

The beginning of the Church in Law goes back over sixty years.  Church of Scotland services were held in the school and conducted by a missionary from Carluke previous to 1886.  The church(seating accommodation 500) then known as a quoad sacra parish, was opened in Law in 1886.  A manse adjoin9ng the church was built in 1886.  In 1924 a hall in Station Road was purchased from the Territorial Association.  This was sold in 1950.  The second stream of church life in Law, the united Free church, also derived its impetus and inspiration from Carluke.  The Ref. John White of the Free Church, Carluke was instrumental in beginning the work in Law.  The church was built in 1887 (seating accommodation 300).  A manse adjoins the church and a hall was built in 1906.  Since the Union in 1929 these two churches are both Church of Scotland, and in 1940 they were united under one minister.  It cannot be said to have been a happy union.  The inevitable disposal of redundant property aggravated the trouble.   But there are signs that, with the passing of the years, this congregation will tend to forget its former divisions and strife and move forward in greater harmony.  Today the church in law is well organised, both as regards Sabbath and week-night activities.  The membership stands  at 475 and financially it is in a sound position.  Besides the church, the only other religious body is the ‘Brethren’, meeting in a hall in Brackenhill Road.

The old Fast days have long disappeared, yet the Sabbath is still looked on by some as a day set apart.  Strict Sabbatarianism is no longer found, so that church-going and visiting friends on a Sabbath are not considered incompatible.

There is a school (built in 1874, and enlarged in 1908 and 1912), with a headmaster and seven teachers.  The present number of scholars in 250.

There is one doctor, two district nurses, a masseur, and a chemist in the district.  Those requiring hospital treatment are sent to Law Hospital.  Maternity cases are either dealt with at home or sent to Smellie Hospital, Lanark, or Bellshill Maternity Home.

Of Youth Organisations there is a wide range, covering activities held under its church, the school and the community centre.  These centres also provide women’s organisations, as does the Co-operative Society.   Under the Education Committee, a ladies’ choir meets weekly and gives concerts in the surrounding district for charitable purposes.  The Toc E choir gives voluntary services in Lanarkshire.

The Law Highland Pipe Band has a membership of 39. Athletics of various descriptions are carried on and the community is well served with  bowling, indoors and out-of-doors, football by local juveniles, tennis, badminton, and a wheelers club.  The bowling green was opened in 1904.

It has a membership of 60.  the recreation park, provided by the district council, is beautifully laid out with trees, grass and flowers.

A war memorial was unveiled in Station Road in 1920, to the men who made the supreme sacrifice during the First world War.  It bears 29 names.  To these were added the names of 10 men and women who died during the second World War. The memorial was removed to the Recreation park in 1949.

The social life of the people is strong and vigorous.  There is a multiplicity of agencies which keep the communal spirit very active and bind the people together.  Apart from the Church, social activity chiefly centres around the Miners’ Welfare Hall, which was opened in 1900.  the hall has a seating capacity of 250, and contains ante-rooms for games and reading.  A film projector was installed recently.  The ever-growing number of clubs, classes and social activities cater for every taste, while outdoor sports in the summer and indoor sports in the winter held to fill in the leisure hours.    There is no Public Library in Law, but many are members of the Wishaw Library.   Reading, listening to the wireless, a weekly visit to the cinema at Wishaw or Carluke, these fill in the odd hours of the day.    The pool system has its roots deep in this as in every community, so that, to hazard a guess, possibly 90 per cent. Of the adult population send in their weekly coupon.  A fair percentage of the men carry  on a business with the ‘bookie’ on horse betting, but this traffic is by no means confined to men.

The family life of the community is not so close and cemented as in the past.   Some of the men work different shifts from week to week, while some of the women have taken on part-time work at the hospital.  The latter kind of work is usually done by those who have  no home ties or by women who have no children, but where there are young children and the mother is employed the family suffers and home life tends to degenerate.

It must be admitted,  however, that the cost of living has forced many women into employment and no doubt the position would rectify itself if the economic situation improved.

 

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Bibliography. (1) A Description of the Sheriffdom of Lanarick, by Sir William Baillie of Lamington, 1659(Maitland Club); (2) A Description of the Sherifdom of Lanark by William Hamilton of Wishaw 1710 (Maitland Club);  (3) the Old Statistical Account, by Dr Scott, Minister of the Parish (1792); (4) Caledonia by George Chalmers;  (5) The New Statistical Account by Dr Wylie (1839);  (6) Origines Parochiales Scotiae (1857) (7) The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire by George Vere Irving; (8) Notices Historical, Statistical and Biographical relating to the Prish of Carluke from 1288 to 1874 (Dr Rankin); (9) Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanse (Volume III);  (10) The

Coltness Iron Company by John S Carvel (1948); (11) Carluke Relatives Memorial Book – 1914-18  War.

 

July 1952

Revised 1957

 

 

 

Note: Caledonia Romana. Page 259.  Short reference to Roman Road passing through Carluke.

Upper Ward  of Lanarkshire by G.V. Irving. Vol 2.

Page 395 to 420 re Parish of Carluke.

ishgland Pipe Band has a memver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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